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British Royal Standards, House of Hanover 1714-1901

Last modified: 2018-02-27 by rob raeside
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George I (1714-1727)

1714 Royal Standard; 1st. England/Scotland. 2nd France. 3rd Ireland. 4th Hanover. 1810 Royal Standard: 1st and 4th England. 2nd Scotland. 3rd Ireland. Hanover inescutcheon. [Mead (1971)]

David Prothero, 25 September 2002


George II (1727-1760)

Navy Office, 27 October 1761, Alterations upon the Royal Standard of England (as described for George I), denote the Flag for the Royal persons under-mentioned:

  • Frederick, Prince of Wales. [Died 1751. Son of King George II] 1714 Royal Standard; white label with three points.
  • William, Duke of Cumberland. [Died 1765. 3rd son of King George II] 1714 Royal Standard; white label with three points, one with cross of St George.
  • Ann, Princess of Orange, Princess Royal. [Died 1759. Eldest daughter of King George II] 1714 Royal Standard; white label with three points, all with cross of St George.
  • Princess Amelia. [Died 1786. 2nd daughter of King George II] 1714 Royal Standard; white label with five(! ?) points, all with cross of St George.
  • Princess Caroline. [Died 1757. 3rd daughter of King George II] 1714 Royal Standard; white label with three points, all with a red Tudor Rose
  • Mary, Princess of Hess. [Died 1772. 4th daughter of King George II] 1714 Royal Standard; white label with three points, all "with a red canton"(?). Perhaps a red square?
  • Louisa, Queen of Denmark. [Died 1751. 5th daughter of King George II] 1714 Royal Standard; white label with three points, all "with torteaux" (circles), but drawn as "red annulets" (rings).

Added note: On 20 July 1816 all the above endorsed, "These alterations are not now to be depended on"
[Source: Mead (1971)]

David Prothero, 25 September 2002


George III (1760-1820)

As Elector of Hanover George I placed the arms of Hanover in the fourth quarter: Tierced pale gules two lions passant guardant or (Brunswick), a crowned lion rampant azure on a field or semé de hearts gules (Luneburg), and gules a horse argent (Westphalia), with a heart shield gules the traditional crown of Charlemagne or. (3:4) [Neubecker (1932), Evans (1970)

From Mead (1971):

  • Prince Edward, Duke of York in 1765. [Brother of King George III] 1714 Royal Standard dimensions 5 : 3; white label with five points, one with cross of St George, "the others cantoned gules".
  • Princess Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. [Married 1764. Sister of King George III] "Impales Brunswick coat (consisting of fourteen quarterings) with the usual English coat, bearing the label of the Prince of Wales, as she was his daughter." [One was made for the use of the Waterloo Bridge Company when the bridge was opened in 1817, so this would have been an 1801 standard.]
  • "King of England and Princess of Mecklenburg" "Standard impaling the royal banner of England with the arms of Princess Charlotte, daughter of Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz." Mead wrote, "The Standard would be required at the wedding and Coronation" (of George III) [George became King 25 October 1760, was married 8 September 1761.]
  • Prince William Henry. [Born 1765. Later Duke of Clarence and King William IV] 1714(?) Royal Standard; white label with three points, one with the cross of St George, and two with blue Anchor.
  • Prince and Princess of Hesse. Standard impaling arms of Hesse with those of Princess Mary (6th item)
  • Duke of Gloucester; standard in 1765. [Younger brother of King George III.] 1714 Royal Standard; white label with five points, one blue Fleur-de-lis, four cross of St George.
  • Duke of Gloucester and Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester; standard in 1817. [He was son of the above Duke of Gloucester, she, 4th daughter of King George III ] Two impaled 1801 Royal Standards, First; white label with five points, one blue Fleur-de-lis, four cross of St George; Second; white label with three points, one with red Heart, two with red Tudor Rose.
  • Standard of King of Denmark united with that of Princess Carolina Matilda of England. "Impaled arms of Denmark with the English arms, charged with a label having three plain points." Made 20 September 1766. 12 feet x 18 feet for yacht, 6 feet x 9 feet for boat. Roughly 3.66m x 5.5m and 1.83m x 2.75m for the metrically minded.
David Prothero, 25 September 2002

About the description "red canton", I have seen illustrations of these arms (one or the other). The "cantons" are red squares/rectangles on the upper hoist (dexter chief) of the points of the label; I think they took up at least one quarter of the "point", because anything less would be hard to see.
Source: Neubecker (1977)

Dean McGee, 25 September 2002


1801-1816 Royal Standard

[Royal Standard 
1816-1866 (Hanover, Germany)] image by Theo van der Zalm modified by Santiago Dotor

Flag adopted 1801, abolished 1816. Quartered England, Scotland, Ireland, England; on the whole the coat of arms of Hanover with a hat [an electoral cap].
Pascal Vagnat, 13 November 1996

In 1800 Ireland came into the union, and in 1801 George III gave up the claim to the French throne. [I believe there was a treaty involved, but I cannot now recall which.]. This resulted in a new flag: Quartered England, Scotland, and Ireland, with a heart-shield of Hanover that was ensigned with an elector cap. (4:5) [Evans (1970), Siegel (1912), von Volborth (1985)]

The need for new arms must already have been felt in 1800, and one would expect a request to devise these would have been given already before the claim on France was dropped. The end result may have incorporated both changes at ones, but one cannot help but wonder what 1800-1801 arms might have looked like. [Evans (1970), Siegel (1912)] 
Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, 24 April 2002

According to an article entitled "The disappearance of the fleurs-de-lys" from Heraldica, "There is a story that the quarter of France was dropped to satisfy the demands of Napoleon at the peace of Amiens (J. H. Pinches, Royal Heraldry of England), or "in compliance with one of the articles of the Treaty of Paris" (Oxford Guide to Heraldry, p. 189). These claims are rather fanciful, since the Treaty of Paris dates from 1783, and the Treaty of Amiens was signed in March 1802; neither treaty making any mention of the matter. The claim to the throne of France was recognized by many as silly, especially since, as of 1792, there was no throne of France to claim (although Britain had yet to recognize this in international law; it did so with the treaty of Amiens). In fact the dropping of the quartering for France occurred Jan. 1, 1801, in connection with the Act of Union with Ireland. "The Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland took effect on January 1, 1801. The 1st article of the Act states: That it be the first Article of the Union of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, that the said Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland shall, upon the 1st day of January which shall be in the year of our Lord 1801, and for ever after, be united into one Kingdom, by the name of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; and that the royal style and titles appertaining to the Imperial Crown of said United Kingdom and its dependencies; and also the ensigns, armorial flags and banners thereof shall be such as H. M. by his Royal Proclamation under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, shall be pleased to appoint. "

For the relevant proclamation see this webpage.

Ned Smith, 28 April 2002


1816-1820 Royal Standard

[Use continued to 1837]

[Royal Standard 
1816-1866 (Hanover, Germany)] image by Theo van der Zalm modified by Santiago Dotor

Based on Neubecker 1932, p. 60.

Flag adopted 1816, abolished as royal standard in Great Britain 1837 (as Royal Standard of Hanover in 1866). As the 1801-1816 banner but with a [royal] crown instead of the hat [electoral cap].
Pascal Vagnat
, 13 November 1996

In the escutcheon the two golden lions in red represent Brunswick; the blue lion on gold surrounded by red hearts represent Lüneburg; and the white horse in red represents Westphalia; in the center another shield with Charlemagne's crown in gold.
Jaume Ollé
, 29 June 1998

I would think that the crown on the escutcheon should not be St. Edward's crown but the Hanoverian royal crown (thus having five visible arches and with neither crosses formy or fleurs-de-lys).
Santiago Dotor, 20 September 2000

I think so too. Louda 1981, p. 197 and Brooke-Little's Royal Heraldry, 1981 both show the Hanoverian crown, the former on the coat-of-arms of Hanover, the latter on the 1815-1837 British arms. The details are not so clear in Louda, but I think the same crown is intended; in any event, five arches and no fleurs-de-lys).
Norman Martin
, 20 September 2000

A better image is available at the Die Welfen website of the Hanover family, probably from Schnath 1961.
Santiago Dotor
, 16 October 2000

Symposium Conservation of Flags shows an image of a somewhat damaged British Royal Standard 1818-1837, which clearly confirms that our image of the 1801 standard has the wrong type of crown, while the 1816 standard is quite close. Furthermore, it shows a different shield-type for the heart-shield. Also, while in general our lions are wider than those in other images, the lions on this actual flag are only 1/3rd of the field they are in. (Judging from their 3D style I'd say they are appliqué, and probably used for a wide variety of field-sized. [Neubecker (1932)]


George IV (1820-1830)

The 1816 standard continued.

William IV (1830-1837)

The 1816 standard continued.

Queen Adelaide (1830-1849)

[Standard Queen Adelaide, 1830-1837] image by Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 October 2008

Based on illustrations by Theo van der Zalm modified by Santiago Dotor

Royal Standard of Queen Adelaide (b13.8.1792; dd 2.12.1849)

Adelaide was married to William IV and was Queen from 1830 until 1837. Her parents were members of the families of Sachsen-Meiningen and Hohenlohe-Langenberg. Adelaide established St.Paul's Cathedral in Malta by spending her own property.

Description of flag:
The dexter half (hoist) is the coat of arms of a member of Royal family of the house of Hannover. The sinister half (fly) is the greater coat of arms of the duchy of Sachsen-Meiningen. The dexter half consists of four quarters superimposed by an inescutcheon tierced(?) with an inner inescutcheon and topped by a crown. The sinister half consists of three times six, i.e. eighteen quarters. The flag has a bordure of alternating red and yellow segments except hoist.
Source:
I spotted this flag in St. Pauls Pro cathedral in Valletta (Malta) on 25 September 2008. Surfing on Anglican church webpages, I found out that it was Queen Adelaide's standard.
Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 October 2008

The Standard of Queen Adelaide was hers during the years in which her husband – King William IV – reigned, and following his death she remained “Queen” Adelaide until she died in 1849 – the Standard of the wife of a monarch is personal not positional.
Christopher Southworth, 26 February 2018

Key to quartering of Queen Adelaide's flag

[Standard Queen Adelaide, 1830-1837]   [Standard Queen Adelaide, 1830-1837]

1 Kingdom of England red three yellow statant leopards
2 Kingdom of Scotland yellow red rampant lion with red double tressure and red fleur de lys upon tressure
3 Kingdom of Ireland blue yellow harp
4 Kingdom of England red three yellow statant leopards(=1)
5 Duchy of Braunschweig(Brunswick) red two yellow statant leopards
6 Duchy of Lüneburg yellow blue rampant lion, crowned and armed red surrounded by 8 red hearts
7 Duchy of Westfalen(Westphalia) red white tripping horse
8 Holy Roman Empire red yellow crown of Karl der Große/Charle Magne
9 Landgraviate of Thüringen(Thuringia) blue rampant lion 7-times divided per fess into white and red, crowned yellow
10 Duchy of Cleve red yellow cross fleury and yellow saltire, both centred, superimposed by white inescutcheon
11 Marquisate of Meissen yellow black rampant lion
12 Duchy of Jülich yellow black rampant lion, crowned and armed red
13 Duchy of Sachsen(Saxony) black six yellow barrulets superimposed by green diadem
14 Duchy of Berg white red rampant lion, crowned and armed blue
15 Palatinate of  Sachsen(Saxony) blue yellow eagle
16 County of Landsberg yellow two blue pallets
17 Palatinate of Thüringen(Thuringia) black yellow eagle
18 County of Orlamünde yellow black rampant lion, crowned and armed red surrounded by 8 red hearts
19 Seigneurie of Eisenberg white three blue bars
20 Seigneurie of Pleissen blue rampant lion, divided per pale into yellow and white
21 Pal.County of Altenburg white red rose
22 empty field red none
23 County of Brena white three red hearty leaves
24 County of Mark yellow three times seven chequered white and red bar
25d Seigneurie of Römhild red white pillar crowned yellow
25s Princ.County of Henneberg yellow a black hen upon a green coupeau
26 County of Ravensberg white three red chevrons

Source: based on the information given in Ströhl (1997)

Klaus-Michael Schneider, 25 October 2008


Continued as Queen Victoria and House of Saxe-Coburg/Windsor